# Números Numbers in Spanish

## What are cardinal numbers

Cardinal numbers are used to express quantity. They are essential in everyday communication for counting, indicating amounts, and providing specific information about the number of items.

Here are the cardinal numbers from 1 to 10 in Spanish:

**1**: uno**2**: dos**3**: tres**4**: cuatro**5**: cinco**6**: seis**7**: siete**8**: ocho**9**: nueve**10**: diez

Here are the tens from 10 to 100:

**10**: diez**20**: veinte**30**: treinta**40**: cuarenta**50**: cincuenta**60**: sesenta**70**: setenta**80**: ochenta**90**: noventa**100**: cien

For numbers beyond 100, the word **ciento** is used for counting:

**101**: ciento uno**102**: ciento dos

Special numbers in Spanish include:

**500**: quinientos**700**: setecientos**900**: novecientos

Here is a table with some additional numbers:

Number | Spanish |
---|---|

1,000 | mil |

10,000 | diez mil |

100,000 | cien mil |

1,000,000 | un millón |

## How to use ordinal numbers

Ordinal numbers indicate the position or order of something in a sequence. They are essential for expressing ranks, positions, and sequences in everyday communication.

Here is a table of ordinal numbers from first to tenth:

Number | Ordinal |
---|---|

1 | Primero/a |

2 | Segundo/a |

3 | Tercero/a |

4 | Cuarto/a |

5 | Quinto/a |

6 | Sexto/a |

7 | Séptimo/a |

8 | Octavo/a |

9 | Noveno/a |

10 | Décimo/a |

In sentences, ordinal numbers are typically placed before the noun they describe. They take on a gender (masculine or feminine) that agrees with the noun.

**Primero**becomes**primer**before a masculine singular noun:**El primer capítulo**(The first chapter).**Primera**is used before a feminine singular noun:**La primera vez**(The first time).

Here are some more examples:

**Segundo lugar**: (Second place).**Tercera casa**: (Third house).**Cuarto día**: (Fourth day).**Quinta avenida**: (Fifth avenue).**Sexto sentido**: (Sixth sense).**Séptima maravilla**: (Seventh wonder).**Octavo piso**: (Eighth floor).**Noveno grado**: (Ninth grade).**Décima vez**: (Tenth time).

Ordinal numbers help clarify the sequence, making communication more precise.

## What are fractional numbers

Fractional numbers are numbers that represent a part of a whole. They are essential in both everyday life and in the structure of a language as they allow precise quantification and division of objects, quantities, or concepts.

In Spanish grammar, fractional numbers are used to denote parts of a whole, much like in English. They appear frequently in fractions, dates, and expressions of time, among other contexts. Fractional numbers can be simple like 'un medio' (one half) or more complex such as 'tres cuartos' (three quarters).

**Examples of Fractional Numbers and Their Usage:**

**un medio**- Represents one half (1/2)**un tercio**- Represents one third (1/3)**un cuarto**- Represents one fourth (1/4)**tres cuartos**- Represents three quarters (3/4)**dos tercios**- Represents two thirds (2/3)

These numbers are often used in sentences to indicate division or portion:

**Compró un medio kilo de queso.**- (He/She bought half a kilo of cheese.)**La receta requiere un cuarto de taza de azúcar.**- (The recipe requires a quarter of a cup of sugar.)**Bebí tres cuartos de la botella.**- (I drank three quarters of the bottle.)**Leímos dos tercios del libro.**- (We read two-thirds of the book.)

## How to form compound numbers

Forming compound numbers follows specific patterns. Understanding these rules is crucial for accurate communication.

Numbers from 21 to 29 are unique:

**21**- veintiuno**22**- veintidós**23**- veintitrés**24**- veinticuatro**25**- veinticinco**26**- veintiséis**27**- veintisiete**28**- veintiocho**29**- veintinueve

The numbers 30+, compounds are created by combining the tens and units:

**30+**: treinta (30), treinta y uno (31), treinta y dos (32), ...**40+**: cuarenta (40), cuarenta y uno (41), cuarenta y dos (42), ...**50+**: cincuenta (50), cincuenta y uno (51), cincuenta y dos (52), ...**60+**: sesenta (60), sesenta y uno (61), sesenta y dos (62), ...**70+**: setenta (70), setenta y uno (71), setenta y dos (72), ...**80+**: ochenta (80), ochenta y uno (81), ochenta y dos (82), ...**90+**: noventa (90), noventa y uno (91), noventa y dos (92), ...

Examples in sentences:

**Veintidós**niños juegan en el parque. (22 children play in the park.)- Mi abuela tiene
**sesenta y cinco**años. (My grandmother is 65 years old.) - Hay
**cuarenta y tres**estudiantes en la clase. (There are 43 students in the class.) - El libro cuesta
**setenta y ocho**pesos. (The book costs 78 pesos.)

## What are collective numbers

Collective numbers in Spanish grammar, also known as *números colectivos*, refer to terms used to describe a collective or group quantity. These numbers denote a set or collection of things or people as a single unit. Understanding collective numbers is essential for describing groups in a more concise way.

**Common Collective Numbers:**

**Docena**- A dozen (12 units).**Centena**- A hundred (100 units).**Millar**- A thousand (1,000 units).**Decena**- A decade (10 units).**Quincena**- A fortnight (15 days).

**Examples in Appropriate Contexts:**

**Docena:**"Compré una**docena**de huevos." (I bought a dozen eggs.)**Centena:**"La biblioteca tiene más de una**centena**de libros raros." (The library has more than a hundred rare books.)**Millar:**"Hay un**millar**de estrellas visibles en el cielo esta noche." (There are a thousand visible stars in the sky tonight.)**Decena:**"El equipo ha ganado una**decena**de premios este año." (The team has won a dozen awards this year.)**Quincena:**"Tendré vacaciones durante la**quincena**del festival." (I will have holidays during the fortnight of the festival.)

## How to use numbers in dates

When using numbers in dates, Spanish grammar has specific rules to follow:

**1. Day comes before the month:**

The standard order for dates is **day/month/year**. For example:**October 5, 2021** is written as **5/10/2021**.

**2. Ordinal Numbers:**

Use ordinal numbers for the first day of the month:**October 1** is written as **1º de octubre** (read as *primero de octubre*).

- For other days, use cardinal numbers:
**October 2**is written as**2 de octubre**.**October 15**is written as**15 de octubre**.

**3. Months:**

Months are not capitalized in Spanish. For example:**November** is written as **noviembre**.**July** is written as **julio**.

English Date | Spanish Date |
---|---|

January 3, 2022 | 3 de enero de 2022 |

February 14, 2023 | 14 de febrero de 2023 |

March 1, 2021 | 1º de marzo de 2021 |

**4. Years:**

Years are written in full. For example:**2021** is written as **2021** (dos mil veintiuno).

Therefore, we construct dates by first specifying the **day**, followed by the **month**, and finally, the **year**. The structure is:

**day**+ "de" +**month**+ "de" +**year**

Here are more examples:

English Date | Spanish Date |
---|---|

April 25, 2020 | 25 de abril de 2020 |

July 4, 2019 | 4 de julio de 2019 |

December 31, 2022 | 31 de diciembre de 2022 |

## What are multiplicative numbers

Multiplicative numbers are used to express the idea of multiplicity or how many times something occurs or multiplies in Spanish grammar. They are less common than cardinal or ordinal numbers but are still necessary for certain contexts. Each multiplicative number corresponds to how many times an action or quantity is doubled, tripled, quadrupled, etc.

**Usage:**

- They are often used in mathematical contexts, descriptions of sequences, and to emphasize repetition.
- Multiplicative numbers can behave as adjectives, adverbs, or nouns, depending on their position and usage in a sentence.

**Common Multiplicative Numbers:**

Number | Spanish | Example |
---|---|---|

2 | doble | El resultado es doble. |

3 | triple | Necesitamos una cantidad triple. |

4 | cuádruple | Ganaron un premio cuádruple. |

5 | quínuple | El esfuerzo fue quínuple. |

6 | séstuplo | Su velocidad es séstupla. |

7 | sétuplo | Logró un incremento sétuplo. |

8 | óctuplo | El crecimiento fue óctuplo. |

9 | nónuplo | Aumentó su tamaño nónuplo. |

10 | décuplo | La distancia es décupla. |

Understanding and using multiplicative numbers enriches one's proficiency and expressiveness in Spanish. They denote how many times an amount or action is multiplied and provide a more precise understanding of quantity and repetition.

## How to express numbers in money

When expressing numbers in terms of money, the order and usage of symbols differ from English. Follow these rules for proper usage:

**Rules:**

- Currency symbols are placed before the numeric amount.
- Periods are used to separate thousands, while commas indicate decimals.
- The conjunction
*“con”*can be used to connect whole numbers and decimal values.

**Examples:**

Here are a few examples illustrating these rules with different currencies:

English |
Spanish |
---|---|

$1,234.56 |
$1.234,56 |

€2,000.75 |
€2.000,75 |

$5.00 |
$5,00 |

$1,234.56 (read as “one thousand two hundred thirty-four dollars and fifty-six cents”) |
$1.234,56 (read as “mil doscientos treinta y cuatro dólares con cincuenta y seis centavos”) |

With these rules and examples, you should be able to accurately express monetary values in Spanish.

## What are the rules for numbers in addresses

When using numbers in addresses in Spanish, specific grammar rules apply to ensure clarity and consistency. Addresses can contain numbers for street names, building numbers, floor numbers, and apartment numbers. Here are the points to consider:

**Street Numbers:**Street numbers are placed before the street name and are typically written as cardinal numbers. For example:**123 Calle Mayor****Building Numbers:**Building numbers follow the street name and are also written as cardinal numbers. For example:**Calle Mayor, 123****Floor Numbers:**When indicating the floor, the ordinal number is used, often followed by the abbreviations 'º' (masculine) or 'ª' (feminine). For example:**3º piso**(third floor) or**2ª planta**(second floor).**Apartment Numbers:**Apartment numbers are placed after the floor number and are usually written using cardinal numbers. For example:**3º piso, apartamento 5**or**2ª planta, puerta 3**

Below is a table illustrating how to properly format addresses with numbers:

Component | Example |
---|---|

Street Number before Street Name | 123 Calle Mayor |

Street Name followed by Building Number | Calle Mayor, 123 |

Ordinal Floor Number | 3º piso |

Apartment Number after Floor | 3º piso, apartamento 5 |

## How to use numbers in measurements

When using numbers in measurements, certain rules must be followed to ensure clarity and correctness. These rules apply to various types of measurements such as length, weight, volume, temperature, and more.

**1. Agreement with Nouns:** Numerals must agree with the nouns they modify in terms of gender and plurality. For example:

**una tonelada**(one ton) - 'tonelada' is a feminine noun.**dos litros**(two liters) - 'litros' is a masculine plural noun.**cinco metros**(five meters) - 'metros' is a masculine plural noun.**veintiuna libras**(twenty-one pounds) - 'libras' is a feminine plural noun, and 'uno' becomes 'una' before a feminine noun.

**2. Decimal Numbers:** Decimal numbers should use a comma to separate the integer part from the fractional part. For example:

**3,5 litros**(3.5 liters)**2,75 metros**(2.75 meters)

**3. Use of Units:** When expressing measurements, the unit of measurement usually follows the number without a space. However, in more formal and scientific contexts, a space might be used. For example:

**15kg**or**15 kg**(15 kilograms)**100ml**or**100 ml**(100 milliliters)

**4. Fractions:** Fractions are often written in words and must agree with the noun they modify. For example:

**un medio litro**(half a liter)**tres cuartos de kilo**(three-quarters of a kilogram)

It is also important to ensure that the numerals are clear and legible, which means using the correct punctuation and spacing as per the language's norms.